This is the aggressive sub-strategy of the leveraged GLD-USD strategy.

'Total return, when measuring performance, is the actual rate of return of an investment or a pool of investments over a given evaluation period. Total return includes interest, capital gains, dividends and distributions realized over a given period of time. Total return accounts for two categories of return: income including interest paid by fixed-income investments, distributions or dividends and capital appreciation, representing the change in the market price of an asset.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Looking at the total return, or increase in value of 38.1% in the last 5 years of Gold-USD Aggressive Sub-strategy, we see it is relatively smaller, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark GLD (38.5%)
- Looking at total return, or increase in value in of 8.9% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to GLD (42.5%).

'The compound annual growth rate isn't a true return rate, but rather a representational figure. It is essentially a number that describes the rate at which an investment would have grown if it had grown the same rate every year and the profits were reinvested at the end of each year. In reality, this sort of performance is unlikely. However, CAGR can be used to smooth returns so that they may be more easily understood when compared to alternative investments.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Looking at the annual return (CAGR) of 6.7% in the last 5 years of Gold-USD Aggressive Sub-strategy, we see it is relatively greater, thus better in comparison to the benchmark GLD (6.7%)
- Compared with GLD (12.5%) in the period of the last 3 years, the annual return (CAGR) of 2.9% is lower, thus worse.

'Volatility is a rate at which the price of a security increases or decreases for a given set of returns. Volatility is measured by calculating the standard deviation of the annualized returns over a given period of time. It shows the range to which the price of a security may increase or decrease. Volatility measures the risk of a security. It is used in option pricing formula to gauge the fluctuations in the returns of the underlying assets. Volatility indicates the pricing behavior of the security and helps estimate the fluctuations that may happen in a short period of time.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Looking at the historical 30 days volatility of 13% in the last 5 years of Gold-USD Aggressive Sub-strategy, we see it is relatively smaller, thus better in comparison to the benchmark GLD (13.5%)
- Looking at volatility in of 14.1% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively smaller, thus better in comparison to GLD (15.2%).

'Downside risk is the financial risk associated with losses. That is, it is the risk of the actual return being below the expected return, or the uncertainty about the magnitude of that difference. Risk measures typically quantify the downside risk, whereas the standard deviation (an example of a deviation risk measure) measures both the upside and downside risk. Specifically, downside risk in our definition is the semi-deviation, that is the standard deviation of all negative returns.'

Which means for our asset as example:- The downside volatility over 5 years of Gold-USD Aggressive Sub-strategy is 9.1%, which is smaller, thus better compared to the benchmark GLD (9.7%) in the same period.
- During the last 3 years, the downside volatility is 10.1%, which is lower, thus better than the value of 10.9% from the benchmark.

'The Sharpe ratio (also known as the Sharpe index, the Sharpe measure, and the reward-to-variability ratio) is a way to examine the performance of an investment by adjusting for its risk. The ratio measures the excess return (or risk premium) per unit of deviation in an investment asset or a trading strategy, typically referred to as risk, named after William F. Sharpe.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- The ratio of return and volatility (Sharpe) over 5 years of Gold-USD Aggressive Sub-strategy is 0.32, which is higher, thus better compared to the benchmark GLD (0.31) in the same period.
- During the last 3 years, the risk / return profile (Sharpe) is 0.03, which is smaller, thus worse than the value of 0.66 from the benchmark.

'The Sortino ratio, a variation of the Sharpe ratio only factors in the downside, or negative volatility, rather than the total volatility used in calculating the Sharpe ratio. The theory behind the Sortino variation is that upside volatility is a plus for the investment, and it, therefore, should not be included in the risk calculation. Therefore, the Sortino ratio takes upside volatility out of the equation and uses only the downside standard deviation in its calculation instead of the total standard deviation that is used in calculating the Sharpe ratio.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Looking at the excess return divided by the downside deviation of 0.46 in the last 5 years of Gold-USD Aggressive Sub-strategy, we see it is relatively higher, thus better in comparison to the benchmark GLD (0.44)
- During the last 3 years, the excess return divided by the downside deviation is 0.04, which is lower, thus worse than the value of 0.92 from the benchmark.

'The ulcer index is a stock market risk measure or technical analysis indicator devised by Peter Martin in 1987, and published by him and Byron McCann in their 1989 book The Investors Guide to Fidelity Funds. It's designed as a measure of volatility, but only volatility in the downward direction, i.e. the amount of drawdown or retracement occurring over a period. Other volatility measures like standard deviation treat up and down movement equally, but a trader doesn't mind upward movement, it's the downside that causes stress and stomach ulcers that the index's name suggests.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Compared with the benchmark GLD (7.71 ) in the period of the last 5 years, the Ulcer Ratio of 7.93 of Gold-USD Aggressive Sub-strategy is greater, thus worse.
- During the last 3 years, the Ulcer Ratio is 7.22 , which is lower, thus better than the value of 7.9 from the benchmark.

'A maximum drawdown is the maximum loss from a peak to a trough of a portfolio, before a new peak is attained. Maximum Drawdown is an indicator of downside risk over a specified time period. It can be used both as a stand-alone measure or as an input into other metrics such as 'Return over Maximum Drawdown' and the Calmar Ratio. Maximum Drawdown is expressed in percentage terms.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Compared with the benchmark GLD (-18.8 days) in the period of the last 5 years, the maximum DrawDown of -18.9 days of Gold-USD Aggressive Sub-strategy is lower, thus worse.
- During the last 3 years, the maximum DrawDown is -15.7 days, which is greater, thus better than the value of -18.8 days from the benchmark.

'The Maximum Drawdown Duration is an extension of the Maximum Drawdown. However, this metric does not explain the drawdown in dollars or percentages, rather in days, weeks, or months. It is the length of time the account was in the Max Drawdown. A Max Drawdown measures a retrenchment from when an equity curve reaches a new high. It’s the maximum an account lost during that retrenchment. This method is applied because a valley can’t be measured until a new high occurs. Once the new high is reached, the percentage change from the old high to the bottom of the largest trough is recorded.'

Which means for our asset as example:- The maximum time in days below previous high water mark over 5 years of Gold-USD Aggressive Sub-strategy is 551 days, which is larger, thus worse compared to the benchmark GLD (352 days) in the same period.
- Compared with GLD (301 days) in the period of the last 3 years, the maximum time in days below previous high water mark of 366 days is greater, thus worse.

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Avg Drawdown Duration is the average amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs), or in other terms the average of time under water of all drawdowns. So in contrast to the Maximum duration it does not measure only one drawdown event but calculates the average of all.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Compared with the benchmark GLD (116 days) in the period of the last 5 years, the average days under water of 147 days of Gold-USD Aggressive Sub-strategy is higher, thus worse.
- Looking at average days below previous high in of 113 days in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively greater, thus worse in comparison to GLD (80 days).

Historical returns have been extended using synthetic data.
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- Note that yearly returns do not equal the sum of monthly returns due to compounding.
- Performance results of Gold-USD Aggressive Sub-strategy are hypothetical, do not account for slippage, fees or taxes, and are based on backtesting, which has many inherent limitations, some of which are described in our Terms of Use.